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Steve Jobs ended the clone-licensing program after returning to Apple in Support for Macintosh clones was first exhibited in System 7.

These changes were made to disassociate the operating system from Apple's own Macintosh models. Both file systems are otherwise compatible. Files in most file systems used with DOS , Windows , Unix , or other operating systems have only one " fork ". The data fork contains the same sort of information as a file in other file systems, such as the text of a document or the bitmaps of an image file. The resource fork contains other structured data such as menu definitions, graphics, sounds, or code segments that would be incorporated into a program's file format on other systems. An executable file might consist only of resources including code segments with an empty data fork, while a data file might have only a data fork with no resource fork.

On the other hand, these forks would provide a challenge to interoperability with other operating systems. In copying or transferring a Mac OS file to a non-Mac system, the default implementations would simply strip the file of its resource fork. Most data files contained only nonessential information in their resource fork, such as window size and location, but program files would be inoperative without their resources.


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This necessitated such encoding schemes as BinHex and MacBinary , which allowed a user to encode a dual-forked file into a single stream, or inversely take a single stream so-encoded and reconstitute it into a dual-forked file usable by Mac OS. As part of Apple's goal of creating a computer with appliance-like simplicity, there is no explicit distinction made between the operating system software and the hardware it runs on.

Because of this, early versions of the operating system do not have a distinct name. The software consists of two user-visible files: the System file, and the Finder , an application used for file management that also displays the Desktop. The two files are contained in a folder directory labeled "System Folder", which contains other resource files, like a printer driver , needed to interact with the System.

These releases can only run one application at a time, except for desk accessories, though special application shells such as Multi-Mac [16] or Switcher discussed under MultiFinder could work around this. Visible changes are best reflected in the version number of the Finder , where major leaps are found between 1. The software itself was still freely available through user groups and bulletin board services. While the product box presented this update to the operating system as "version 5. Three of the four disks System Tools 1, System Tools 2 and Utilities 1 are all bootable, and the user can boot off of whichever floppy contain the tools the user needs.

Because the disks are named System Tools, users and the press commonly referred to this version as "System Tools 5. The primary new feature of System 5 is MultiFinder , an extension which lets the system run several programs at once.

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The system uses a cooperative multitasking model, meaning that time is given to the background applications only when the foreground application yields control. A change in system functions that applications were already calling to handle events make many existing applications share time automatically, as well as being allowed to perform tasks in the background. In InfoWorld tested four multitasking options for PC and Mac, viewing MultiFinder positively overall, but noting that its presence halved the speed of file transfer and printing compared to the single-tasking System 6 without MultiFinder.

System Software 6 also referred to as "System 6" is a consolidation release of the Macintosh system software, producing a complete, stable, and long-lasting operating system. Two major hardware introductions requiring additional support under System 6 are the processor and 1. Later updates include support for the first specialized laptop features with the introduction of the Macintosh Portable. From System 6 forward, the Finder has a unified version number closely matching that of the System, alleviating much of the confusion caused by the often considerable differences between earlier Systems.

On May 13, , System 7 was released. It is a major upgrade over System 6, adding a significant user interface overhaul, new applications, stability improvements and many new features. Its introduction coincides with the release of and provided support for the Macintosh line.

The System 7 era saw numerous changes in the Macintosh platform including a proliferation of Macintosh models , the 68k to Power Macintosh transition as well as the rise of Microsoft Windows , increasing use of computer networking and the explosion in popularity of the Internet. One of the most significant features of System 7 is virtual memory support, an essential subsystem anticipated for years, which only exists for previous Systems in a third party extension named Virtual from Connectix.

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This change is known as being "bit clean". While System 7 itself is bit clean, many existing machines and thousands of applications were not, so it was some time before the process was completed. To ease the transition, the "Memory" control panel contains a switch to disable this feature, allowing for compatibility with older applications.

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Another notable System 7 feature is built-in cooperative multitasking. In System Software 6, this function was optional through the MultiFinder. System extensions were enhanced by being moved to their own subfolder; a subfolder in the System Folder was also created for the control panels. In System 7. The Apple menu, home only to desk accessories in System 6, was made more general-purpose: the user could now make often-used folders and applications—or anything else they desired—appear in the menu by placing aliases to them in an "Apple Menu Items" subfolder of the System Folder.

System 7 also introduced the following: AppleScript , a scripting language for automating tasks; bit QuickDraw , supporting so-called "true color" imaging, previously available as a system extension; and TrueType , an outline font standard. The Trash, under System 6 and earlier, empties itself automatically when shutting down the computer—or, if MultiFinder is not running, when launching an application. System 7 reimplements the Trash as a special hidden folder, allowing files to remain in it across reboots until the user deliberately chose the "Empty Trash" command.

System 7. One of the major new features of System 7. This leads to extra files inside the system folder one per new model supported. These issues do not affect 68k-architecture machines. Mac OS 7. It was mainly released to keep the Mac OS moving forward during a difficult time for Apple. Initially planned as Mac OS 7.

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Mac OS 8 added a number of features from the abandoned Copland project, while leaving the underlying operating system unchanged. A multi-threaded Finder was included; files could now be copied in the background. The GUI was changed in appearance to a new shaded greyscale look named Platinum , and the ability to change the appearance themes also known as skins was added with a new control panel though Platinum was the only one shipped.

This capability was provided by a new "appearance" API layer within the OS, one of the few significant changes.


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Apple sold 1. In light of Apple's financial difficulties at the time, there was a large grassroots movement among Mac users to upgrade and "help save Apple". Even some pirate groups refused to redistribute the OS. There are some other interface changes such as separating network features from printing, and some improvements to application switching.

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However, in underlying technical respects, Mac OS 8 is not very different from System 7. It also improved the appearance of the user interface, although the theming feature was cut late in development. Early development releases of Mac OS 9 were numbered 8. Mac OS 9 added improved support for AirPort wireless networking.

It introduced an early implementation of multi-user support. Though not a true multi-user operating system, Mac OS 9 does allow multiple desktop users to have their own data and system settings. An improved Sherlock search engine added several new search plug-ins. Mac OS 9 also provides a much improved memory implementation and management. Other new features included its on-the-fly file encryption software with code signing and Keychain technologies, Remote Networking and File Server packages, and much improved list of USB drivers.

Mac OS 9 also added some transitional technologies to help application developers adopt some Mac OS X features before the introduction of the new OS to the public, to help ease the transition. These included new APIs for the file system and the bundling of the Carbon library that apps could link against instead of the traditional API libraries—apps that were adapted to do this could be run natively on Mac OS X as well.

Other changes were made beginning with the Mac OS 9. The final update to the classic Mac OS was version 9. Although it was originally marketed as simply "version 10" of Mac OS, it has a history that's largely independent of the earlier Mac OS releases.

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The desktop version, Mac OS X Since then, several more versions of the operating system have been released. Users of the classic Mac OS generally upgraded to Mac OS X, but it was criticized in its early years as more difficult and less user-friendly than the original Mac OS, for the lack of certain features that had not yet been reimplemented in the new OS, for being slower on the same hardware especially older hardware , and for incompatibilities with the older OS.

Originally codenamed the "blue box", the environment runs a nearly complete Mac OS 9 operating system, version 9. Mac OS 9.

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Most well-written "classic" Mac OS applications function properly under this environment, but compatibility is assured only if the software was written to be unaware of the actual hardware and to interact solely with the operating system. Go back to your Microsoft Office application and try printing to the printer you just re-added. If it still won't print, it may be that you need to replace your print driver files. Deleting and reinstalling your printer resets that printer's settings but may not always replace the print driver files.

Follow these steps to replace those:. Choose Reset printing system from the shortcut menu. The folder will be named "New Folder With Items" by default, which is fine for our purposes. When we're done you can delete that folder to save space.


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  8. Repeat the process you did for deleting and reinstalling the printer. This time your system will download and install new printer drivers too. Go back to Office and test your printing again. If it still doesn't work your printer preference files might be causing the problem. Corrupted printer preference files may cause printing issues.